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What are Chicago and Turabian Styles?

Citation styles from the University of Chicago Press. Used in history and political science and in other disciplines within the humanities and social sciences.  Designed for students writing term papers, Turabian is a simplified version of The Chicago Manual of Style.  Note: If you can't find a citation example in the Turabian manual, see Chicago.Cover of Chicago Manual of Syle

Chicago and Turabian provide two style options:

Notes and Bibliography.  Features: Uses footnotes, typically followed by a bibliography.  Facilitates referencing of unusual source types. Used often in the humanities, history, and business. See the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide for many examples of footnotes in many formats.

Author-Date System.  Features: In-text parenthetical citations of author(s) last name, publication year, and cited pages, followed by a reference. Used often in the sciences and social sciences.

The citation examples provided below are based on the Chicago Manual's 16th edition, published in 2010; the Chicago Q&A website provides additional information and clarifications.

Citation Manuals:

How to Cite in Chicago/Turabian Style: A Three Minute Tutorial

Additional Resources

Citation Quick Guide

Sample Citations: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide 

An introduction to The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition (2017). A look at what's new and some tips on navigating CMOS Online.