Loyola University Chicago Libraries

Arrupe College: APA Style

APA Quick Guide Table of Contents:

  • Articles
    • From a journal, magazine, and newspaper
  • Books
    • Print
    • Entire book, edited book, book chapter, multi-volume works
  • Ebooks
    • Online
    • Entire book, edited book, book chapter
  • Web Pages
    • Entire website, single web pages
    • Pages or sites with no author or date or with a corporate author
  • Media
    • Social media, images, music, videos
  • In-text Citations Author(s)
    • in sentence or parenthesis, no author or date, etc.
  • Authors
    • None or multiple

Articles

NOTE:

  • If a DOI is not provided, include "Retrieved by" and the URL/permalink after the page numbers instead.
  • APA states that including information about the database in which you found the article is not necessary because databases change over time. However, include it if your professor wants you to include it or if the article is difficult to locate.

 

In Text:

(Robbins, 2015, p. 305).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA or Purdue OWL's APA Guide.

Online Magazine Article:

NOTE:

  • Include page numbers after the volume and issue number and before the URL if they are available.

In Text:

(Clay, 2008).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA or Purdue OWL's APA Guide.

Article from a Print Magazine:

In Text:

First citation:

(Chamberlin, Novotney, Packard, & Price, 2008, p. 27).

Subsequent citations:

(Chamberlin, et al., 2008, p. 28).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA or Purdue OWL's APA Guide.

Article from an Online Newspaper:

In Text:

(Brody, 2007).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA or Purdue OWL's APA Guide.

Article from a Print Newspaper:

NOTE:

  • Unlike other periodicals, "p." or "pp." precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA Style.
    • Single pages: p. 21
    • Multiple pages: pp. 20-23 or pp. 23, 25

In Text:

(Schwartz, 1993, p. A4).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA or Purdue OWL's APA Guide.

Books

In Text:

(Shotten, 1989, p. 2).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA or Purdue OWL's APA Guide.

In Text:

(Haybron, 2008, p. 20).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA or Purdue OWL's APA Guide.

NOTE:

  • If the edited book does have an editor besides the editors, include their names (last name, first initial) and the publication year first, before the editor(s) name(s).

In Text:

(Duncan & Brooks-Gunn, 1997, pp. 28).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA or Purdue OWL's APA Guide.

In Text:

(Koch, 1959-1963).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA or Purdue OWL's APA Guide.

Ebooks

Entire eBook (Only Available Online):

In Text:

(Davis, n.d.).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA or Purdue OWL's APA Guide.

Entire eBook (Electronic Version of a Book that is Available in Print):

In Text:

(Schiraldi, 2001).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA or Purdue OWL's APA Guide.

In Text:

(Strong & Uhrbrock, 1923, p. 145).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA or Purdue OWL's APA Guide.

Web Pages

NOTE:

  • If the format of the web page is something out of the ordinary, such as a blog post, include a format description in brackets (after the title of the web page and after the URL).

In Text:

(Buterbaugh, 2016, para. 2).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA, Purdue OWL's APA Guide, or the APA Style website.

Web Page with No Author:

In Text:

("Helping the Student," 2015).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA, Purdue OWL's APA Guide, or the APA Style website.

Web Page with No Date:

In Text:

(The College of William & Mary, n.d.).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA, Purdue OWL's APA Guide, or the APA Style website.

Web Page with No Author or Date:

In Text:

("Anxiety disorder symptoms," n.d.).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA, Purdue OWL's APA Guide, or the APA Style website.

In Text:

(Freakonomics, 2010).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA, Purdue OWL's APA Guide, or the APA Style website.

Media

NOTE:

  • For Description of Post Content or Caption: 
    • Provide up to the first 40 words.
    • If the item contains no words (like a photograph without a caption), provide a description of the item in square brackets.
    • If the content may change, provide a date you retrieved the source.

In Text:

(Gaiman, 2012).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA, Purdue OWL's APA Guide, or the APA Style website.

NOTE:

  • For Description of Tweet Content or Caption: 
    • Provide up to the first 40 words.
    • If the item contains no words (like a photograph without a caption), provide a description of the item in square brackets.
    • If the content may change, provide a date you retrieved the source.

In Text:

(Gates, 2013).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA, Purdue OWL's APA Guide, or the APA Style website.

In Text:

(McGonigal, 2012).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA, Purdue OWL's APA Guide, or the APA Style website.

Image Found Online:

In Text:

(National Geographic, 2012).

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see the Publication Manual of the APA, Purdue OWL's APA Guide, or the APA Style website.

In-text Citations

One author:

  • In 2015, Mardis has noted that Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (p. 5).
  • Mardis has noted that Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (2015, p. 5).
  • Mardis (2015) has noted that Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (p.5).

Two authors:

  • Mardis and Johnson argue that libraries should adapt rapidly to change (2014, para. 5).

Three to five authors:

Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs:

  • Baudino, Mardis, and Johnson (2014) also highlight the importance of the issue (p. 5).

In subsequent citation(s), include the surname of the first author followed by et al.:

  • Baudino et al. (2014) highlighted another important issue (p.6).

Six or more authors:

Include the surname of the first author followed by et al.:

  • Apparently, Mardis et al. (2013) agree entirely with this point (para 7).

 

If both authors have the same surname, include the first author's initials in all text citations, even if the year of publication differs:

  • (J Smith, 2005; T.A. Smith, 2008).

If both authors have the same surname and first initial, provide the author's full name:

  • (Lori Mardis, 2015).

One author:

  • Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (Mardis, 2014, p. 5).

Two authors: 

Cite both author names in every reference:

  • Other authors also agreed that libraries should adapt rapidly to change (Mardis & Johnson, 2014, p. 6).

Three to five authors:

Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs:

  • This is an important issue highlighted by additional authors (Baudino, Johnson, & Mardis, 2013, para. 5).

For subsequent citation(s), include the surname of the first author followed by et al.:

  • The other important issues were also highlighted (Baudino et al., 2013, para. 6).

Six or more authors:

Include the surname of the first author followed by et al.:

  • Apparently, other authors agree entirely with this point (Mardis et al., 2014, p. 8).

No Author:

  • Use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.
  • Example: ("All 33 Chile Miners," 2010).

No Date:

  • Use "n.d." for "no date"
  • Example: ("Quick Answers--References," n.d.).
  • When multiple studies support an argument, include multiple citations inside the same set of parentheses.
  • Within the parentheses, alphabetize the studies as they appear in the reference list and separate with semicolons.
  • In running text, address studies in whatever order is wished.

 

  • Example: Fluency studies for third grade students have produced mixed results (Baudino & Wyatt, 2013, p. 3; Brady, 2010, para. 5; Mardis, Drew, & Johnson, 2012, p. 30).
  • Example: Mardis, Drew, and Johnson (2012) reported an increase in fluency among third grade students, while Brady (2010) reported a decrease. Baudino and Wyatt (2013) found no significant differences in reading fluency.

Authors

  • If the author's first name is hyphenated, retain the hyphen and include a period after each initial 
    • Example: Johnson, A.-R. for Amelia-Rose Johnson
  • If a material has an editor, place the editor's name in the author position, and enclose the abbreviation "Ed." or "Eds." in parentheses after the last editor's name followed by a period.
    • Example: Author, A.A. (Ed.).
  • If the reference list includes different authors with the same surname and first initial, the author's full first names may be given in brackets
    • Reference List Example: Mardis, L. [Lori].

 Mardis, L. [Laura].

  • In Text Citation Example: (Lori Mardis, 2015).

One Author:

  • Last name, First initial. (Include middle initial if provided.)
  • Example: Lewey, T. D.
  • Invert all authors' names in the order in which they appear in the original text.
    • Example: Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author, C. C.
  • Use commas to separate authors, to separate surnames and initials, and to separate initials and sufixes (such as Jr. and III).
    • Example: Smith, A. K., Jr., & Jameson, P. R.

Two Authors:

  • Author A last name, Author A first initial. Middle initial if provided., & Author B last name, Author B first initial. Middle initial if provided.
  • Example: Lewey, T. D., & Moody-Goo, H.
  • Invert all authors' names in the order in which they appear in the original text.
    • Example: Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author, C. C.
  • Use commas to separate authors, to separate surnames and initials, and to separate initials and sufixes (such as Jr. and III).
    • Example: Smith, A. K., Jr., & Jameson, P. R.

Three to Seven Authors:

  • Author A last name, Author A first initial. Middle initial if provided., Author B last name, Author B first initial. Middle initial if provided., & Author C last name, Author C first initial. Middle initial if provided.
  • Example: Lewey, T. D., Moody-Goo, H., & Potter, H. J.
  • Invert all authors' names in the order in which they appear in the original text.
    • Example: Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author, C. C.
  • Use commas to separate authors, to separate surnames and initials, and to separate initials and sufixes (such as Jr. and III).
    • Example: Smith, A. K., Jr., & Jameson, P. R.

Eight or More Authors:

  • Include the first six authors' names followed by an ellipsis (one set of three dots) and then end with the last author's name.
  • Example: Alvarado, A., Annala, G., Ruppman, T., Wardzala, S., Wersching, Y., Artemchik, T., ...Currie, J.

Reference List Example: 

List chronologically in order of publication date.

Ehrenreich,B. (2001). NIckel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America. New York: Metropolitan Books.

Ehrenreich, B. (2007). Dancing in the streets: A history of collective joy. New York: Metropolitan Books.

In Text Example:

List chronologically in order of publication date within the same parentheses.

  • (Ehrenreich, 2001, 2007).

Start the entry with the title of the work:

Book Example:

  • Maze. (2011). Maryville, MO: Northwest Missouri State University.

Newspaper Example:

  • Sharing reference information. (2012, March 1). Northwest Missourian, pp. C1, C2.

Web Page Example: 

  • Rechecking security for human safety appropriate for Kansas City Zoo. (2016, June 1). Retrieved from http://www.kansascity.com/opinion/editorials.article81217142.html

Note

The various examples used on this guide come from either Purdue OWL, NWMSU's APA Style Citation Examples guide, or the APA Style Blog.