Loyola University Chicago Libraries

Arrupe College: Chicago/Turabian Notes & Bibliography Style

Notes & Bibliography or Author-Date Style?

  • Chicago/Turabian Notes & Bibliography Style Quick Guide Table of Contents:

    • Articles
      • From a journal, magazine, and newspaper
    • Books
      • Print
      • Entire book, edited book, book chapter, multi-volume works
    • Ebooks
      • Online
      • Entire book, edited book, book chapter
    • Web Pages
      • Pages or sites with no author or date or with a classical author
    • Media
      • Social media, images, music, videos​
    • Authors
      • One, multiple, or none
      • Multiple works by the same author 
      • Ibid

Notes & Bibliography or Author-Date Style?

  • Turabian is a simplified version of Chicago Style created by Kate Larimore Turabian for students and researchers.
  • Source citations in Turabian come in two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography (or simply notes) and (2) author-date. 
    • They are the same ones presented in The Chicago Manual of Style and are very similar aside from the way they cite sources in the text.
    • If you aren't sure which variety to use, read the descriptions of the styles below and ask your instructor.

Notes & Bibliography:

  • Popular in the humanities (literature, history, and the arts).
  • Sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes​.
    • Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text.
  • Sources are also listed in a separate bibliography.
  • Flexible and can easily accommodate a wide variety of sources.

Author-Date:

  • Common in the physical, natural, and social sciences.
  • Sources are briefly cited in the text (usually in parentheses) by last name and year of publication.
    • Each citation in the text matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Articles

  • For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database.
  • Many articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser's address bar.

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of journal articles, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of magazine articles, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of magazine articles, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of newspaper articles, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of newspaper articles, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

Books

NOTE:

  • If the location of the publisher is not a well-known city (such as the capital of the state or a major city like New York or Chicago), include the abbreviation of the state as well.
    • Example: Durham, NC:

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of books, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

NOTE:

  • If the location of the publisher is not a well-known city (such as the capital of the state or a major city like New York or Chicago), include the abbreviation of the state as well.
    • Example: Durham, NC:

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of books, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

NOTE:

  • If the location of the publisher is not a well-known city (such as the capital of the state or a major city like New York or Chicago), include the abbreviation of the state as well.
    • Example: Durham, NC:

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of books, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

NOTE:

  • If the location of the publisher is not a well-known city (such as the capital of the state or a major city like New York or Chicago), include the abbreviation of the state as well.
    • Example: Durham, NC:
  • If the work includes individual, unique volume titles or volume editors, it is usually best to cite the volumes individually. 

Individually Titled:

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of books, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

NOTE:

  • If you've consulted the paper online, include a DOI/Permalink/URL (if available).

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of papers, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

Ebooks

NOTE:

  • Since many eBook formats lack fixed page numbers, avoid citing screen or location numbers specific to a certain app or device.
    • Instead, cite by chapter or section number or by the name of the chapter or section. 

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of ebooks, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

NOTE:

  • Since many eBook formats lack fixed page numbers, avoid citing screen or location numbers specific to a certain app or device.
    • Instead, cite by chapter or section number or by the name of the chapter or section. 

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of ebooks, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

Web Pages

NOTE:

  • Articles from news websites can usually be cited like articles in newspapers--see the citations for articles in a newspaper.
  • Include the owner/sponsor of the site if it is not the same as the title of the page or site.
  • For sources that are frequently updated (like a wiki), record a time stamp if the source includes one (i.e. "last modified August 12, 2017).
  • Cite website content in the notes, but only include a specific item in the bibliography if it is critical to your argument or if it is frequently cited.

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of web content, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

NOTE:

  • Articles from news websites can usually be cited like articles in newspapers--see the citations for articles in a newspaper.
  • For sources that are frequently updated (like a wiki), record a time stamp if the source includes one (i.e. "last modified August 12, 2017).
  • Cite website content in the notes, but only include a specific item in the bibliography if it is critical to your argument or if it is frequently cited.

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of web content, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

NOTE:

  • Articles from news websites can usually be cited like articles in newspapers--see the citations for articles in a newspaper.
  • Include the owner/sponsor of the site if it is not the same as the title of the page or site.
  • For sources that are frequently updated (like a wiki), record a time stamp if the source includes one (i.e. "last modified August 12, 2017).
  • Cite website content in the notes, but only include a specific item in the bibliography if it is critical to your argument or if it is frequently cited.

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of web content, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

Media

NOTE:

  • In place of a title, use the text of the post. Quote up to the first 160 characters.
  • Because social media is subject to editing and deletion, it is a good idea to keep a copy of anything you cite (like a screenshot of the tweet or image).
  • Social media is often cited only within the text of the paper.
    • A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. 

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of web content, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

NOTE:

  • In place of a title, use the text of the post. Quote up to the first 160 characters.
  • Because social media is subject to editing and deletion, it is a good idea to keep a copy of anything you cite (like a screenshot of the tweet or image).
  • Social media is often cited only within the text of the paper.
    • A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. 

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of web content, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

NOTE:

  • In place of a title, use the text of the post. Quote up to the first 160 characters.
  • Because social media is subject to editing and deletion, it is a good idea to keep a copy of anything you cite (like a screenshot of the tweet or image).
  • Social media is often cited only within the text of the paper.
    • A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. 

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of web content, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

NOTE:

  • This section includes citations for videos other than movies or television programs. For examples of those types of citations, see their sections of Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations:
    • Movies: section 17.10.3.1
    • Television programs: section 17.10.3.2
  • Citations of videos and podcasts can normally be limited to the notes or woven into the text.
    • However, if the source is critical to your paper or frequently cited, you may include it in your bibliography.

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of multimedia and vidoes, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

NOTE:

  • Cite paintings, sculptures, photographs, print advertisements, maps, cartoons, and so forth only in the notes or weaved into the text.
  • For works without a date, include the date you accessed the work.
  • Whenever possible, consult the items through the website of the institution at which the item is physically located.
  • Include the type of graphic in parentheses if unclear from the title or caption.

Bibliography:

First Note:

Shortened Note:

For more examples of citations of other types of artwork and graphics, see The Chicago Manual of Style; Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and DissertationsPurdue OWL's Chicago Style Guide, or the Chicago Turabian Style website.

Authors

Bibliography:
  • Last name, First name [Middle Initial].
  • Example: Bernstein, Jay M.
First Note:
  • First Name [Middle Initial] Last Name.
  • Example: Jay M. Bernstein
Shortened Note:
  • Bernstein

Two Authors:

Bibliography:
  • Author A Last Name, First Name [Middle Initial], and Author B First Name Last Name.
  • Example: Foner, Eric, and John A. Garraty.
First Note:
  • Author A First Name [Middle Initial] Last Name and Author B First Name Last Name
  • Example: Eric Foner, and John A. Garraty
Shortened Note:
  • Author A Last Name and Author B Last Name
  • Example: Foner and Garraty

Three Authors:

Bibliography:
  • Author A Last Name, First Name [Middle Initial], Author B First Name Last Name, and Author C First Name Last Name.
  • Example: Soss, Joe, Jacob S. Hacker, and Suzanne Mettler
First Note:
  • Author A First Name [Middle Initial] Last Name and Author B First Name Last Name
  • Example: Joe Soss, Jacob S. Hacker, and Suzanne Mettler
Shortened Note:
  • Author A Last Name and Author B Last Name
  • Example: Soss, Hacker, and Mettler

Four or More Authors:

Bibliography:
  • List all of the authors
  • Author A Last Name, First Name [Middle Initial], Author B First Name Last Name, Author C First Name Last Name, Author D First Name Last Name
  • Example: Bernstein, Jay M., Roger Berkowitz, Jeffrey Katz, and Thomas Keenan.
First Note:
  • List only the first author followed by "et al." 
  • Author A First name [Middle Initial] Last Name et al.
  • Example: Jay N. Bernstein et al.
Shortened Note:
  • List only the first author followed by "et al."
  • Author A Last Name et al.
  • Example: Bernstein et al.

NOTE:

  • Alphabetize a source with no named author in the bibliography by the title of the source
  • Use the first word after an article like "a" or "the"

 

Book:

Bibliography:
  • Firefly Guide to Fossils.
Notes:
  • Firefly Guide to Fossils,

 

Article:

Bibliography:
  • ""Peruvian Tai Chi Master Spreads Martial Arts in Latin America."
Notes:
  • "Peruvian Tai Chi Master Spreads Martial Arts in Latin America,"
Bibliography:
  • After the first instance of an author with multiple works, replace the author or editor's name with a long dash.
  • Last Name, First Name. Title.

---. Title.

  • Example: Foner, Eric. The Fiery Trail: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery.

---. A House Divided: America in the Age of Lincoln.

  • Some faculty recommend use of "ibid" (Latin for "the same") to shorten a footnote to a work cited in the immediately preceding note.
  • Example: 11. Smith, History Matters, 89.

12. Ibid, 90.

13. Ibid.

(In Footnote #13, the cited material is also found on page 90.)