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Citing Sources

Notes & Bibliography or Author-Date Style?

  • Turabian is a simplified version of Chicago Style created by Kate Larimore Turabian for students and researchers.
  • Source citations in Turabian come in two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography (or simply notes) and (2) author-date. 
    • They are the same ones presented in The Chicago Manual of Style and are very similar aside from the way they cite sources in the text.
    • If you aren't sure which variety to use, read the descriptions of the styles below and ask your instructor.

Notes & Bibliography:

  • Popular in the humanities (literature, history, and the arts).
  • Sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes​.
    • Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text.
  • Sources are also listed in a separate bibliography.
  • Flexible and can easily accommodate a wide variety of sources.


  • Common in the physical, natural, and social sciences.
  • Sources are briefly cited in the text (usually in parentheses) by last name and year of publication.
    • Each citation in the text matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.